Saturday, May 23, 2020
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2187 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Research paper Topics: Military Essay Did you like this example? Foreign policy is the system of activities evolved by communities and nations for changing the behaviour of other states and for adjusting their own activities to the international environment. The foremost task of foreign policy analysis must be to throw light on the ways in which states attempt to change, and succeed in changing the behaviour of other states. George Modelski INTRODUCTION 1. Perception Management is the art of shaping up the public opinion of a target audience in coherence with the overall national, political and military objectives as defined by a nation states policy on international relations. Public Diplomacy is a major component of the Perception Management strategy besides Public Information, Information Operations and Psychological Operations, the last being the only defined tool in the realms of diplomacy in the military domain. In the post cold war world the role of diplomacy has visibly changed and expanded in the face of far more unstable international conditions. This is partly because of the emergence of complex relationships between a large number of power centres, including nation states, states run by military forces, United Nations Organisation, Non Governmental Organisations as well as non-state actors. These developments are adding to the machinery of diplomacy and modifying the established character of diplomacy in significant wa ys. The scope of diplomatic practice has grown to adapt to the changing needs of changing international environments. It is evident in the contemporary world order that the diplomatic techniques have altererd in response to new needs and it is of paramount importance that India too, as an aspirant world power, restructures its Perception Management campaign by adapting to the contemporary needs of the changing environments in the international relations. While Military Diplomacy is a new dimension to a nations diplomatic efforts, India is still lacking in using this critical tool of state-craft in pursuance of its overall national objectives. METHODOLOGY STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2. It is felt that Military Diplomacy in Indian context is being exercised with shallow understanding of the subject and its implementation by Indian higher echelons is a stand-alone effort without judiciously utilising all the resources available within the Indian military system. This study seeks to highlight the missing link in the overall scheme of Indian Military Diplomacy, that there is a need to inculcate an understanding at the joint services level to appreciate the growing importance of military diplomacy at the lower levels in armed forces across the world, and tap vast potential available in the Indian system that is presently being under-utilised. HYPOTHESIS 3. A top-down approach in implementing military diplomacy can not in itself achieve the larger aim of an effective and credible national military diplomatic effort. Higher level military diplomacy needs to be complemented at lower levels also to include lower echelons of military ambassadors to achieve the desired national objectives. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY 4. After the two World Wars, the wars of Iraq-Iran, the Vietnam War and the Arab Israel wars, there was a lull at the international stage for some years and only the cold war ensued. The end of cold war brought some limited wars into focus li ke Chechnya conflict, Georgian war, Kargil war, Ethiopia-Eritrea conflict, Invasion of Kuwait and Global War on Terror (GWOT). With these military and semi-military confrontations, the military aspects of diplomacy are gaining significance. International powers like the USA, France, UK, Germany and Australia have embarked on using military as an indispensible tool in the overall perception management operations by specialising cadres in the military ranks to perform the said role. China and Pakistan have also been noticeably leveraging their national policies with a well structured Defense Diplomacy campaign. Though India is also on board the initiative, however, present understanding of Indian Military Diplomacy and its implementation is only broad based and not total without effectively employing and integrating the potential available at lower echelons of military hierarchy also. 5. Immediate Relevance of the Problem. It is felt that a large pool of human resource within the t hree services in the Indian defense forces presently goes untapped towards contributing in the overall implementation of military diplomacy in the contemporary scenario. There is a felt need to focus on the issue, research on any existing policy guidelines or mechanism to unify the overall effort in this direction to include selection criteria and training of military diplomats, and arrive at recommendations by way of creating a structure and mechanism in our organisation so as to optimally channelise the available potential within the defense forces towards a planned and well defined perception management campaign at the national level. 6. Essence of The Subject. (a) State craft is no longer the privilege of only politicians and bureaucrats. In the contemporary geo-strategic environment, it is equally relevant to all Official State Ambassadors, irrespective of their level. The sphere of influence of a lower echelon military ambassador would be limited in scope, but is more in formal and would in effect be more intense and specific to a particular community. (b) Deployment of large military human resource abroad on official assignments with no defined military aim is a futile exercise and wastage of a potent tool of practicing state craft. Realistic thinking indicates that Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¡ÃâÃ ¬ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âFriendships cannot be thrust upon or pushed down, but friends can push-up betterment of overall relations. In the prevalent global order marred with numerous and frequent military confrontations amongst states and equally among states and non-state actors, military diplomacy is one tool that can assist in achieving a higher degree of understanding amongst the affected sides and preclude or limit military stand-offs. (c) Manoeuvring the minds of the adversaries is a known form of military conduct. However, in the new world order, it is the art of influencing and shaping the perceptions of the neutral world community as well that would fall in the realms of manoeuvristic ethos of the militaries. As an aspirant global power and permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, it is imperative that India puts its best foot forward in shaping the world opinion in its favour in all perspectives. Military per se, is a far reaching and most effective tool in conduct of such a Perception Shaping Campaign by the virtue of its multifarious engagement capability of the international community at all levels of hierarchy. SCOPE 7. This study concentrates on highlighting the incomplete implementation of military diplomacy in the Indian context with a view to bring out recommendations to ameliorate the overall structure, process and mechanism to unify the approach towards achieving the desired national and military objectives. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION 8. The subject in reference is understood to have not been addressed by many renowned writers or defense analysts in any dedicated books. The process of collection of data would hence be more inclined towards non-documentary sources to include views of individuals with expertise or experience on the subject and institutional / organisational feedbacks. 9. Notwithstanding the above stated limitations, the subject research would encompass the following. (a) Books on Indian Foreign Policy and Diplomacy of India. (b) Reference from Indian Military / Army Doctrine (unclassified portion only). (c) Articles on the subject on internet. (d) Interaction with civilian / defense experts on the subject. (e) Interaction with individuals with experiences in relation with the study. (f) Feedbacks from Governmental offices / organisations and military branches / directorates (open sources only). (g) Perspectives of foreign student officers attending DSSC 66 course. (h) Defense magazines / journals. 10. Research Cycle. The following issues will be considered during the research and appropriately streamlined t o prove / disprove the proposed hypothesis. (a) Changing geo-strategic scenario and Indias increasing role in the world order. (b) Role of Indian Military to support National aims / objectives, or exert the will of the nation. (c) What is being achieved and what are the shortcomings of present Military involvement in overall national defense diplomacy design. (d) Higher echelons / political leaders influence the public opinion of their peoples, however it is by a feed and eat approach. The populace does not form its own opinions to the extent of influencing the outcome of a nations attitude towards a subject country, in this case, India. (e) As India looks into the future into next two decades or so, she sees a glimpse of a potential geo-strategic power poised to shaping up the world opinion. To do so, the efforts to channelize world opinion in our favour must be oriented towards an all encompassing approach to include a top-down, a bottom-up as also a lateral engagem ent of the worlds diaspora. (f) Military continues to be pivotal in formulating national responses in the foreseeable future, and hence it becomes even more important to plan and execute shaping up the military opinion the world over in our favour right from now on. (g) It is natural that the Captains of today will be the Generals of tomorrow. A favourable opinion towards India built in today, will pay rich dividends when it would matter the most in the times to come. (h) Role of Indian Armed Forces interactions with the international Military components in various forums as follows:- (i) UN Missions (as Military Observers (MILOBs), Staff Officers (SOs), Military Contingents and on civilian staff vacancies.) (ii) Foreign training exchange programs to include Military Training Teams and Military courses. (iii) Deputations as Military or Defense Attaches (MAs / DAs). (iv) Multinational / Bilateral Military Exercises. (v) Training Visits or observer exchange pr ograms to / from friendly foreign countries. (vi) Equipment trials during new military hardware acquisitions. (vii) Joint participation in humanitarian assistance missions like Tsunami relief. (viii) Multi-national operations like anti-piracy operations. (ix) World Military Games meets. (x) Strategic level military conferences / forums like IONS (Indian Ocean Naval Symposium). (xi) Nepalese contribution to IA. (xii) Military Martial Music Exchange Programs. (j) Convictions on Present Status of Indian Military Diplomacy in Lower Echelons. (i) Vast Indian military resource being deputed / employed without any dedicated thought / foresight in the future. (ii) Selection procedure for important foreign missions / assignments and preparation for appointments / roles not streamlined to meet national and military diplomatic objectives. (iii) Superficial handling of the matter by all concerned at the Integrated Headquarters of Ministry of Defense (IHQ of MOD) and non-accountability of officers or personnel on foreign assignments towards their contribution to the overall system during their tenures. (iv) Foreign assignments more focused and sought for personal financial gains and not oriented towards a national diplomatic effort. (v) Presently, individualistic approach is predominant in whatever lower level military diplomatic interactions take place at various forums. No dedicated thought or effort goes into addressing a particular nations community as a whole at lower level military interactions. No unified policy guides such good opportunities which are mostly informal yet influential, albeit sometimes would pay dividends after considerable period of time. (vi) Presently, no institutionalised training is imparted to handle such diplomatic opportunities by our lower level ambassadors. No objectives are defined by higher offices that should guide our actions when on such assignments. (vii) Despite a huge military diaspora fr om India contributing all over the globe as also when not being available for in country military service, this potential still remains untapped and non-channelized primarily because of the following. (aa) No defined policy / doctrine on the subject. (ab) No structure / mechanism in place to do the needful. (ac) Such a role not chartered to any existing organisations / military branch / directorate. (ad) Selection for assignments, and post employment not synchronous. (ae) Briefings debriefings by selected few desks in Military Intelligence (MI) / Service Duties (SD) Directorates usually a formality. (viii) System of time bound foreign assignment bans is purely mathematical and has merits and demerits in the existing practical aspects, however, for military diplomacy, non availability of an experienced person for a follow up assignment could actually prove detrimental to the larger scheme of things. CHAPTERISATION 11. It is proposed to study the subject in th e following manner. (a) Chapter-I. Introduction. (b) Chapter-II. Trace the advent of Military Diplomacy. (c) Chapter-III. Scope of exercising Military Diplomacy as part of overall National Diplomatic effort. (d) Chapter-IV. Various tools available to practice Military Diplomacy. (e) Chapter-V. Relevance of Military Diplomacy in Indian context and present status of implementation. (f) Chapter-VI. Present Status of Military Diplomacy at Lower Echelons. (g) Chapter-VII. Structures, processes and mechanisms required to address the issue. (h) Chapter-VIII. The way forward in the future. (j) Chapter-IX. Recommendations. (k) Chapter-X. Conclusion. CONCLUSION 12. There is certainly a need to address the issue of channelising the foreign assignees from the defense forces to perform their duties in accordance with a well defined policy / doctrine dictated by the overall national and military objectives. Military ambassadors at various levels serve as best t ool to exercise military diplomacy and to shape up the international opinion in our nations favour by reaching the roots of a foreign military and delivering the essence of Indias correct perspective. Practicing Military diplomacy should not be restricted only to higher echelons of political, diplomatic and military chairs, but should become a part and parcel of all state actors in whatever capacity they represent the nation state. Practicing state craft must become second nature to all military personnel in India and Military Diplomacy a common subject of mutual understanding. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Inculcation Of Lower Level Military Diplomacy International" essay for you Create order
Monday, May 11, 2020
Psychological Skills Training What exactly is Psychological Skills Training and for a coach or instructor, what advantage is gained by its implementation? In other words, why bother? Psychological Skills Training (PST) is typically more comprehensive than a few short sessions with a few simple interventions that a coach or instructor might suggest. PST usually integrates cognitive and relaxation techniques in a more encompassing approach to mental training and as a complement to physical training. Individualism is a hallmark of most PST programs. (Gill, 2000) The Importance of Mental Skills Why are mental skills so important to performance and why are they often neglected by coaches and athletes? Yogi Berra has been quoted asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is likely that the thinking of specific, detailed technique features that control physical movements would cause performance to worsen. This is because of the phenomenon known as cognitive interference (when one thinks of what they are doing when performing a highly skilled activity in a non-fatigued state, the thoughts interfere with the efficiency of automated skilled performance). When an athlete is fresh, task-relevant thinking should be limited to tactical and decision-making content (e.g., anticipation, recognition of relevant cues) and general capacity features such as smoothness, length, evenness, rhythm, etc. The detailed technique features of physical actions should be left to the automatic neuromuscular patterns that have been developed through training. However, at the onset of the next performance stage , which is usually signaled by the first hint of fatigue, it is necessary to begin to concentrate on specific, detailed technique thoughts along with other task-relevant items. This is required to avoid any accumulated fatigue causing a loss in technique efficiency. The transfer of control to conscious thinking about skilled activities should maintain performance efficiency and form. As a competition progresses and fatigue increases, task-relevant thinking should gradually include increasing amounts of specific technique content so that performance efficiency is sustained. PST Ã¢â¬â The Development Phase Coaches must assist theShow MoreRelatedSport Psychology: Analysis of Psychological Skills Training models with particular reference to Thomass (1990) model for performance enhancement.2092 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesto establish what psychological factors produce the winning formula or to try to establish a profile of the successful athlete. Within the psychological framework attempts, to determine the ideal athletic personality have only been marginally successful (Morgan 1980, in White, 1993). One of the categories observed in order to understand and move towards the ideal athletic personality is that of Psychological Skills Training (PST), It is contended that mental skills training is a significant partRead MoreEarly Childhood Teacher And A Psychologist1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Ã¢â¬Æ' Item Title Page 1. Introduction 3 2. Job Description 7-5 2.1. Early Childhood Teacher 4 2.1.1 Tasks 5 2.1.2. Personal Requirements 5 2.1.3. Education and Training 5 2.2. Psychologist 5-7 2.2.1 Tasks 5 2.2.2. Personal Requirements 6 2.2.3. Education and Training 7 3. My Personal Skills, Attributes and Values 7-8 3.1. Skills 7 3.2. Attributes 7 3.3. Values 8 4. Which Job Do I Suit Better? 8 ContentsÃ¢â¬Æ' 1. Introduction Two jobs that I have always been extremely interested in include, an early childhoodRead MoreMindfulness Meditation ( Mm )1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesflower. There are numerous studies demonstrating various positive outcomes of mindfulness meditation (MM). But, what is mindfulness? What are the mechanisms behind MM that help facilitate these positive outcomes including improved physical health, psychological well-being, and cognition? The concept of mindfulness has its roots in Buddhist philosophy and is a key element of Buddhist meditation practices. The word mindfulness derives from the Pali word Sati which can be found in early Buddhist scripturesRead MorePsychology : A Profession And A Science1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesindividuals will act, helping individuals to modify their behaviour and helping associations, groups and societies change. Then again as a science psychology is the investigation of how individuals see (Super Super, 2009). A percentage of the psychological professi ons include clinical psychology, counseling psychology, health psychology, forensic psychology, social psychology etc. (Keether Morgan, 2013). I have decided to pursue with MSc. forensic psychology after my undergraduate degree. ForensicRead MoreDefinition And Intervention Mid Term Project Is Teen Dating Violence1156 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdating violence. I will be discussing different techniques, leader skills, and interventions that I will utilize when I facilitate a six week group. I will incorporate several different icebreakers and activities that has been used in an adolescents groups by clinicians. As the therapist, some of the techniques consist of the following empathy, reframing, Socratic questioning, active listening, and effective communication skills. The three most important leader styles that will be identify in myRead MoreSports Athletes Should Not Be Better Than Their Opponent1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmanipulate relevant information in their specialist sport (Swann, Moran, Piggott, 2015). In order to achieve max performance, an elite athlete must be skilled in their craft, meaning they are able to produce the skills needed reliably, on demand, and with very little luck. Demonstrating their skill ability by maximizing the certainty of the intended goal achievement, minimizing their energy expenditure (physically and mentally), and minimizing the time used (Schmidt Lee, 2015). An athletesÃ¢â¬â¢ cognitiveRead MorePhysical And Mental Rehabilitation Of Athletes894 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmultitude of individual and psychological aspects that go into athletic injury rehabilitation. Ievleva and Orlick (1991) found that athletes who recovered from injury faster than their peers were more consistently positive, had an internal locus of control, took personal responsibility for their faster healing, were more involved in goal setting and engaged in positive healing and/or performance imagery. Most athletic trainers believe in the use of psychological skills in the rehabilitation ofRead MoreEmotional Intelligence And Marital Satisfaction1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEmotional Intelligence and Psychological WellbeingÃ¢â¬ by Abraham Carmeli, Meyrav Yitzhak-Halevy, and Jacob Weisberg. The initial purpose of this research study was to identify the influence that emotional intelligence had on individualÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological well-being. Multiple theories suggest that individuals who have high emotional intelligence experience a healthier life, and higher psychological well-being than those with low or lack of emotional intelligence. The four psychological aspects that were examinedRead MoreOccupational Health And Safety Legislation1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesresponsibility model, employees have three essential rights as stated by Dessler et al (p. 319, 2011) and they include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ They have the right to know about the hazards on a job, how the hazards affect the employee and the specific health and safety training available. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The right to participate in occupational health and safety process. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The right to refuse any unsafe work without fear of reprisals if they have reasonable cause to believe the work is dangerous. Prevention of occupational hazards UnderRead MoreReflection On Personal Reflection1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe opportunity to reflect on the course assignments and the impact this foundational base will have for future classes. Every event in life has to start somewhere and this start sets the stage for future learning. This personal reflection of the skills that I have learned during the past eight weeks will positively impact my educational journey at Northcentral University. What I Already Know I already know that throughout my doctoral journey I must continue to thoroughly read, re-read, review and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The term Ã¢â¬ËmanagementÃ¢â¬â¢ is used extensively in business. It is the core or life giving element in business. We expect that a business unit should be managed efficiently. We will write a custom essay sample on Evolution of Management Thoughts or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is precisely what is done in management. Management is essential for the conduct of business activity in an orderly manner. It is a vital function concerned with all aspects of working of an enterprise.Current management theory and practice did not just eventuate. It evolved over many years. The evolution of the discipline of management has helped to develop a body of knowledge about the practice of management. The development of management thought is the result of contributions made by pioneering management thinkers and experts from other social sciences such as economics and psychology. In the next couple of decades, management theory and practice is bound to change in order to meet the complex and ever changing environmental variables. The phenomenal growth in multinational and transnational operations, fast changing technology, increasing complexity of decision making, dynamic social and economic environment, globalisation of business and elastic project organisations and task groups will significantly influence the future managerial world and managerial tasks. There are successful business and management leaders publishing their memories and offering their experience to the world. There is great increase in the number of business schools.Management education is bank ably providing expertise to nonage the business and this trend is likely to continue. Career paths are likely to be based on expertise alone. Managers will be under pressure to develop this expertise and apply it in an ever-widening range of situations rather than their ability to survive the bureaucratic jungle. They will have to combine their personal, professional and operational qualities and capacities to the satisfaction of employers and the soc iety. The future must be considered as an opportunity and not a problem. The future business environment will he dominated by information echnology (IT), globalisation, material and energy shortages, problems of pollution and ecological balance, consumerism, inflation and R amp; D. The costs of employing expert managers are regarded as an investment for effective business performance. Management is a designated expertise, increasingly professionalized and is likely to progress to a highly organised status. It is assumed that young people will choose management as an occupation and will progress from lower to middle and from middle to top management positions. An ever-greater range of knowledge is available to all aspects of business and management. How to cite Evolution of Management Thoughts, Papers
Thursday, April 30, 2020
Things Fall Apart The culture of the Umuofia society before the colonial infiltration, may be hard to understand but we are forced by Achebe to realize it has traditions and customs that make it work. Although, looking at it from our Judaeo-Christian point of view we may be appalled by some of their practices. We also have to realize that they have strengths. Things Fall apart is the idea of balance and interdependence, earth and sky, individual and community, man and woman or different perspectives on the same situation. The central image of this balance is contained in the Ibo concept of chi, which occurs throughout the novel. A persons chi is their destiny, his inner self, you wouldn't challenge your chi to a wrestling match, as did Okonkwo when he assisted in the killing of Ikemefuna, whom he loved and who called him father. Okonkwo sins not only against the earth goddess, protector of family relations, but also against his inner most feelings or his chi. Any bad luck that occurs, people of this c ulture would say that you have a bad chi. Okonkwo's destiny is marked by bad luck, one reason may be that he is so driven by the fear of resembling his father that he struggles to express part of his personality with predictably afflicted results. This was a society where a man was judged by his own achievement and not that of his fathers. Yams were the primary crop of Umuofia. A sign of manliness was if you could farm yams to feed your family. Okonkwo is respected because of his hard work. The complex patterns of Umuofia's economic and social customs materialize throughout this novel as we see Okonkwo compelled to rid himself of any similarities that his father had. Unoka had no titles, was lazy and when he died was greatly in debt. Some may wonder how a society like the Ibo's functioned, how they enforce its laws with no kings, no organized police force, and no standing army. Indeed this is something our modern culture could study. These things were accomplished through the functions of the masked spirits. The Egwugwu, represents the village's highest spiritual and judicial authority. The masked spirits are believed to represent their ancestors. This supports the myth The land of the living was not far removed from the domain of the ancestors. There was a coming and going between them, especially at festivals and also when an old man died because an old man was very close to the ancestors, as we saw when Ezeudu died. A man's life from birth to death was a series of transitional rites which brought him nearer and nearer to his ancestors. The Egwugwu is made up of the titled men of the village, they have legal, moral and religious authority. They have a working system of peace and order. this is demonstrated by t he trial of Uzowulu for beating his wife. They had a sense of community, the week of peace came at the end of the carefree season and before the harvest and planting season. During the week of peace Okonkwo broke the peace and was punished, as was the custom, by Ezeani, the priest of the earth goddess. He told Okonkwo, even though his wife was at may have been at fault, he committed a great evil. During the Week of Peace you are to live in complete peace no matter what the circumstances, the evil he did could ruin the whole clan. The feast of the New Yam is similar to our Thanksgiving, it was held every year before the harvest began, to honor the earth goddess and the ancestral spirits of the clan. The second day of the new year was the day of the great wrestling match between Okonkwo's village and their neighbors. Okonkwo's second wife Ekwefi, loved this festival. Many years ago when she was the village beauty, Okonkwo had won her heart by throwing the Cat in the greatest contest. She did not marry him then because he could not afford he bride price. In this culture they bargained over a bride price in Ekwefi's case it had been a cow, being a symbol of wealth
Saturday, March 21, 2020
Advancements of Dental Science in 1900s Essays Advancements of Dental Science in 1900s Essay Advancements of Dental Science in 1900s Essay The unparalleled leadership of American Dentistry beginning in the 1920s developed largely because of the improvement and consistent reliability of dental materials brought about by the research programs at the National Bureau of Standards from 1920s until present day. This advancement in dental science was due to the symbiotic private and public sponsorship of research programs by the cooperative research group between the American Dental Association and the National Bureau of Standards. In the oral history interview of George C.Ã Paffenbarger, D. D. S, he explains his involvement as a researcher and leader in the dental field as well as advancements made due to the work of this research program. Dr. PaffenbargerÃ¢â¬â¢s own dedication to purpose and constant endeavor to enhance and expand the science of dental materials is evident in his recollections of programs and events in which he participated. The integration of government regulation in standardizing dental materials was pertinent to the forward growth of the dental field. Dr.Ã PaffenbargerÃ¢â¬â¢s account is informative and perceptive, demonstrating how the emerging vision of Ã¢â¬Å"professionalismÃ¢â¬ in American dentistry could be accomplished through the advancements of the dental field. The beginnings of government funded dental research begun during World War I when the Army wanted to procure dental amalgam but had no criteria. At the time the National Bureau of Standards was the chief physical laboratory to the government so the Army wrote to them requesting a standard for amalgam in order to put in a bid request in 1919. Separate manufacturers were producing dental materials but due to the lack of authoritative literature in dental materials orders for these products were based on advertised brand names not facts. The National Bureau of Standards contacted Dr. Wilmer Souder, a physicist, whose further research exposed the lack of knowledge about dental materials used in practice. Dr. PaffenbargerÃ¢â¬â¢s account of Dr. SouderÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the dental field demonstrates a clear responsibility in the beginnings of dental research. Even in his closing statements of the interview he stresses how Dr.Ã SouderÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"foresight, his determination, and how his energy and scientific experience was applied to the development of this dental research program here at the National Bureau of Standards is truly phenomenal. Ã¢â¬ After basic research Dr. Souder realized there was a general lethargy of the dental profession and the dental manufacturers and the government. Paffenbarger even recounts Dr. SouderÃ¢â¬â¢s story of speaking to a dentist about amalgam material and the response was Well, we have to just say what the manufacturer says. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any source of information about what we are using here. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t have anything equivalent to the U. S. P. on drugs. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any standards, or any criteria except just trial and error in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s mouth. To do something about this, Dr. Souder wrote to the American Dental Association to see if they would be interested in establishing a research associateship, which the National Bureau of Standards had been able to do after organic law was passed by Congress. This began the relationship with the American Dental Association and National Bureau of Standards. The importance of Dr.Ã Souder in the emergence of the dental field is a widely accepted notion by historians. In an article written by W. T. Sweeney published by the National Bureau of Standards in 1972, the author gives a report on the most outstanding events, personnel, and accomplishments of the dental research program in honor of the 50th anniversary of the program. It is evident from the beginning in SweeneyÃ¢â¬â¢s article when she states, Ã¢â¬Å"the name of Dr. Wilmer Souder is the most outstanding of all the scientific staff because he is responsible for setting the character and ideals of the program. Ã¢â¬ Her writings parallel that of Paffenbarger as she states it was his realizing of the necessity of cooperative effort between dental profession, manufacturers, and general public as represented by the government. SweeneyÃ¢â¬â¢s article also states how the original request from the War Department to the National Bureau of Standards in 1919 initiated the changing of the dental field by exposing the lack of standardized practices. This article goes into further detail of how Souder obtained numerical evaluations by measurement and delineated his procedure so his results could be repeated and checked. This practice gave a new point of view to the dental field materials. In both Paffenbarger and SweeneyÃ¢â¬â¢s account, Souder realized that the dental field needed much further investigating and an important field to do research in, especially from a health standpoint. This led to the first expansion of the dental field by the addition of research associates to the group. The first request from the National Bureau of Standards to the American Dental Association was denied, stating that the American Dental Association was not interested. Paffenbarger explains how Dr. Souder decided to wait to re-contact the association for about two years. During this time he set up to find other sponsors for research associateship. SweeneyÃ¢â¬â¢s article agrees with PaffenbargerÃ¢â¬â¢s account of the support by the Weinstein Research Laboratory. Their research focused on measurements of properties of gold alloys and standardized precision casting. In having hard-fast results that could be repeated, Sweeney states how this is an example of the cooperative effort producing scientific results. This original success was published and introduced dental science to the field of research and even convinced the American Dental Association to join forces. In PaffenbargerÃ¢â¬â¢s account he stresses the importance of this event to the formation of cooperative research, but in SweeneyÃ¢â¬â¢s article he divulges into how their reports Ã¢â¬Å"justify SouderÃ¢â¬â¢s prediction that well trained chemists could determine accurately the composition of dental allows. Ã¢â¬ SweeneyÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis on education and analyses of trade brand materials further opens up to the new field of standardized dental materials. As the interest in dental materials grew the American Dental Association joined the National Bureau of Standards in 1928. One of the main issues discussed by Paffenbarger was the lack of dentists involved in research. The group had physicist, chemists, and many other scientists, but not a dentist. In order to keep the research headed in the direction of dentistry Dr. Paffenbarger was elected chief of the American Dental Association group. The addition of Dr. Paffenbarger to the joined research unit is seen as a turning point in dental research. In his oral account Paffenbarger states how his scientific understanding of the tooth as an organ with no blood supply allowed for researchers to gain interest in dental materials that would enable them to restore tooth function. Multiple times in PaffenbargerÃ¢â¬â¢s account he mentions the insistence from his advisors and teachers of the necessity of a dentist at the head of research. This fact is further supported in an article James L. Gutmann, DDS, who states that as the unitÃ¢â¬â¢s lead scientist, Dr. Paffenbarger guided research toward unparalleled advancements in developing standards to ensuring that productsÃ perform predictably, safely and effectively. The emergence of American dentistryÃ¢â¬â¢s professional image occurred with Paffenbarger at the head of research. In the second chapter of Stine GrumsenÃ¢â¬â¢s dissertation on the critical history of American dentistry, she discusses the struggle of authority and recognition by dentists. Unlike most professions Ã¢â¬Å"American dentistry did not evolve from a trade to a professions emancipated from trade, but rather, that business was a prerequisite of professional success. Ã¢â¬ She agrees it was not until Dr. Paffenbarger was placed at the head of research that the dental professional image emerged. It was through his guidance and teaching that dental research took off correct direction. With Dr. Paffenbarger at the head of research one of their first priorities was to have a list of certified materials. In order to have a certified list the American Dental Association tested for Ã¢â¬Å"specification formulationÃ¢â¬ to find a average consistency between the groups of cooperative dentists of their measurements and techniques. Paffenbarger and the research unit believe that by standardizing materials and techniques information can be obtained in any laboratory office. To begin this the American Dental Association cooperated with the Dental Materials Group of the International Association for Dental Research, which eventually phased into the American National Standards Institute. Paffenbarger states how this was a unique situation in how the Bureau of Standards allows testing of commercial materials in their facilities. The merging of public and private enterprises to test commercial materials was discussed in SweeneyÃ¢â¬â¢s article as an arrangement that Ã¢â¬Å"made for a much broader base of operation and the liaison has proven most profitable to all concerned. Ã¢â¬ By combining government-based programs with private associations the American Dental Association was able to set up the standards in materials and techniques used and publicize results of research. This is important in the advancement of dentistry because as Paffenbarger discusses, previously dentists were easily swayed by false advertisements made by manufacturers and without any standardize testing of the material they were unsure which product actually worked. As well, results of research were now useful to the general dentist and the public due to the general settings applied to future research. The initial testing of dental materials was actively opposed by manufacturers. In PaffenbargerÃ¢â¬â¢s account he discusses how the president of Kerr Dental Manufacturing Company, Robert Kerr, believed that the work at the Bureau was interfering with commercial advances and manufacturers. He claimed the research had only included a few of the dental manufacturers, which was disrupting trade. Dr. Paffenbarger however continues on to state that the standards and specifications that led to the certification programs of dental material was the subject of real objection. Previously, due to lack of standardized research dentists knew little about the materials they were using and were dependent entirely upon the manufacturersÃ¢â¬â¢ advertising. Manufacturers wanted the ability to state that their product was the best or denounce that somebody elseÃ¢â¬â¢s material would meet the specification. This previous control of dental advertising by manufacturers was discussed as an Ã¢â¬Å"erosion of dentistsÃ¢â¬â¢ exclusive rights to authority on dental careÃ¢â¬ in Stine GrumsenÃ¢â¬â¢s dissertation. Paffenbarger and Grumsen both agree that the lack of dental knowledge by the actual dentists led to the increased funding from the Federal Government and from the Association. It was this control of the manufacturers of the dental field that led to increased financial support of public and private associations to aid in research of dental materials. With full support of the government manufacturers lost the ability to be the ultimate source of information, which actually led to manufacturers wanting to work hand-in-hand with researchers so they could be part of test methods and evaluation systems being involved rather than being left behind. Paffenbarger states how this led to the cooperation of the International Association of Dental Research, which turned into a committee under the American National Standards Institute. In the close involvement of manufacturers and researchers they worked together for the same goals of dental advancement. It was this unity that helped progress forward rather than the constant struggle seen earlier with manufacturers. The success of this program is seen in the domination of the American National Standards Institute as the Ã¢â¬Å"voice of the U. S. standards and conformity assessment systemÃ¢â¬ still seen today. The intimate cooperating of manufacturer and government association led to the growth and successfulness of the American National Standards Institute. Now the institution oversees the Ã¢â¬Å"creation, promulgation and use of thousands of norms and guidelines that directly impact businesses in nearly every sector. Ã¢â¬ This coming together of different sponsorships was for one main purpose, to transfer information to the dentist and therefore the patients. In order to get information out to practicing dentists Paffenbarger discuses the importance of publishing research work in scientific journals such as Journal of the American Dental Association and Journal of Dental Research which were created beginning 1913. In these publications they included what method should be used by the dentist in handling materials so that Ã¢â¬Å"one would develop the best values for physical and chemical properties in the materials. Ã¢â¬ Publications of dental journals were not restricted to the standardizing of practices, but also helped regulate fraud. They exposed false advertisements through the publication of the report and results. If a manufacturers advertised new developments researchers take action by testing and publishing their findings in order to keep American dentists away from false information. The importance of the development of scientific journals is agreed upon by many scientists and historians to have a significant influence on the advancement of dental science. In James GutmannÃ¢â¬â¢s 2009 article, Ã¢â¬Å"The evolution of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific advancements in dentistry in the past 150 years,Ã¢â¬ he states how publications of journals such as those used by Paffenbarger and his researchers were Ã¢â¬Å"devoted to the advancement and dissemination of knowledge pertaining to the mouth and teeth, and to their relation to the body as whole. Ã¢â¬ This is further accepted in Alyssa PicardsÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Making the American Mouth, where anything from reports of new materials to expectation of office behavior was described in the major national journals. She specifically points out how these journals militated Ã¢â¬Å"broader professional engagementÃ¢â¬ in a time where the idea of professionalism enticed dentists. She even gives the example of professional journals in the 1960s urging dentist to become spokespersons for water fluoridation. Bruce Lee Pihlstrom and Michael Glick (2013) further impress the importance of scientific journals to dental advancements in playing a central role in the communication between dentists and dissemination of new information. Journals allowed dentists to be at the forefront of their field, keeping them up to date as well as their patients. Pihlstrom and Glick show that since the publications of scientific journals life expectancies have risen from 50 to 75, as well as a decline in diseases such as tuberculosis. This positive correlation of better health conditions associated with the publication of journals suggest the information being passed in the journals is used by the readers to better their lives. American Dentistry boomed in the 1920s because of the improvement and consistent reliability of dental materials brought about by research programs at the National Bureau of Standards. Dr. George C.Ã Paffenbarger gives us an accurate and perceptive account of the symbiotic relationship formed between private and public sponsorships that helped further dental advancements. Through associations such as American Dental Association and the National Bureau of Standards standardizing dental materials and procedures was accomplished. Dr. Paffenbarger was at the forefront of American Dentistry and his account of the advancements of dentistry accurately reflects historianÃ¢â¬â¢s data. Annotated Bibliography American National Standards Institute, Ã¢â¬Å"Historical Overview,Ã¢â¬ 20 January 2013, ansi. org/about_ansi/introduction/history (5 April 2013). This website was used to gain information on the current American National Standards Institute. I was unable to find a secondary source that attested to ANSI and the advancements in the dental field, so instead I used this website to show the continued success of the American National Standards Institute. Grumsen, Stine S. Casting for Good Will: Profession, Trade and Identity in American Dentistry, C. 1910-1950 (Denmark: Department of Culture and Society, 2012), 1-147. In this dissertation by Stine Grumsen she examines the history of American dentistry through the study of advertisements. This article is great because of the correlation between public knowledge of dentistry through the examination of dental advertisements. She suggests that advertisements have increased the struggle of dentists to be recognized as an authority. This article continues into the use of journals to debate false claims made by advertisers that could be tested and publicized. Gutmann, J. L. Ã¢â¬Å"The evolution of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific advancements in dentistry in the past 150 years,Ã¢â¬ Journal of the American Dental Association 140 (September 2009): 15. GutmanÃ¢â¬â¢s article was useful in that it gave a brief overview of major advances in dentistry during the past 150 years. This article goes into four major events that had a significant effect on bringing science to dentistry, but I only focused on the formation of scientific journals and the role of Dr. Paffenbarger in the dental field advancements. Paffenberger, George C. Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 1-136. In Dr. PaffenbargerÃ¢â¬â¢s primary account of the advancement in dental field, he gives the reader an entire overview of his life. This includes how he got involved in the dental field at an early age shadowing his father. His interest in dentistry sparked because of this and he continued to study the science of dental medicine. As an enthusiastic student he went on to become one of the fore runners of research at the American Dental Association. He headed the research of hundreds of experiments, as well as traveled the world to gain more knowledge and to teach all he could. Paffenbarger accounts how the dental field continued to advance due to the involvement of private and public sponsorships such as the government and Associations. He discusses all aspects of the research field in the early 1920s. This includes the dynamic relationship with manufacturers, the use of scientific journals to spread the word of recent research, as well as new organizations formed to further the dental advancements. Picard, A. Making the American Mouth: Dentists and Public Health in the Twentieth Century (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2009), 1-241. In her first chapter Picard divulges into the past and present of the dental field. I used this article for more information from the academic journals. Here she discusses not only the use of journals to inform, but how journals actively sought out dentists to fight for the cause! Pihlstrom, Bruce L, and Michael Glick, Ã¢â¬Å"A century of progress: The Journal of the American Dentistry Association celebrate its centennial. Ã¢â¬ Journal of the American Dental Association 144 (January 2013): 14. This article was used for the data associated with the Journal of the American Dental Association. Since its founding nearly 100 years ago many health conditions have bettered because of the publications of journals. This is because the journals can inform the doctor and the patient about ways to keep healthy and avoid contamination by bacteria or virus. Sweeney, W. T. Ã¢â¬Å"Dental Research at the National Bureau of Standards-History and Individuals,Ã¢â¬ National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 354 (June 1972), 7-11. This article divulges into dental research at the National Bureau of Standards. It was initiated in 1919 with the work of dental amalgams. The following year research associates from Weinstein Research Laboratory was added to the NBS staff, which was followed by that of the American Dental Association. Sweeney goes into the importance of the cooperative program with the American Dental Association and its impact on dentistry. [ 1 ]. George C. Paffenberger, Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 137. [ 2 ]. Ibid, 20. [ 3 ]. Ibid, 16. [ 4 ]. W. T. Sweeney, Ã¢â¬Å"Dental Research at the National Bureau of Standards-History and Individuals,Ã¢â¬ National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 354 (June 1972), 7. [ 5 ]. Ibid. [ 6 ]. Paffenberger, George C. Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 15. Sweeney, W. T. Ã¢â¬Å"Dental Research at the National Bureau of Standards-History and Individuals,Ã¢â¬ National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 354 (June 1972), 7-11. [ 7 ]. W. T. Sweeney, Ã¢â¬Å"Dental Research at the National Bureau of Standards-History and Individuals,Ã¢â¬ National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 354 (June 1972), 8. George C. Paffenberger, Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 16. [ 8 ]. W. T. Sweeney, Ã¢â¬Å"Dental Research at the National Bureau of Standards-History and Individuals,Ã¢â¬ National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 354 (June 1972), 8. [ 9 ]. Sweeney, W. T. Ã¢â¬Å"Dental Research at the National Bureau of Standards-History and Individuals,Ã¢â¬ National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 354 (June 1972), 8. [ 10 ]. George C. Paffenberger, Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 11. [ 11 ]. George C. Paffenberger, Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 6, 9, 19. [ 12 ]. James L. Gutmann, Ã¢â¬Å"The evolution of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific advancements in dentistry in the past 150 years,Ã¢â¬ Journal of the American Dental Association 140 (September 2009): 10. [ 13 ]. Stine S. Grumsen, Casting for Good Will: Profession, Trade and Identity in American Dentistry, C. 1910-1950 (Denmak: Department of Culture and Society, 2012), 13. [ 14 ]. Ibid, 11. [ 15 ]. George C. Paffenberger, Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 20-24. [ 16 ]. W. T. Sweeney, Ã¢â¬Å"Dental Research at the National Bureau of Standards-History and Individuals,Ã¢â¬ National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 354 (June 1972), 8. [ 17 ]. George C. Paffenberger, Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 24. [ 18 ]. George C. Paffenberger, Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 32. [ 19 ]. George C. Paffenberger, Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 32-36. Stine S. Grumsen, Casting for Good Will: Profession, Trade and Identity in American Dentistry, C. 1910-1950 (Denmak: Department of Culture and Society, 2012), 15. [ 20 ]. George C. Paffenberger, Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 32. [ 21 ]. American National Standards Institute, Ã¢â¬Å"Historical Overview,Ã¢â¬ 20 January 2013, ansi. org/about_ansi/introduction/history (5 April 2013). [ 22 ]. George C. Paffenberger, Oral History Interview with Dr. George C. Paffenbarger (Maryland: National Bureau of Standards, 1979), 34. [ 23 ]. Ibid, 37. [ 24 ]. James L. Gutmann, Ã¢â¬Å"The evolution of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific advancements in dentistry in the past 150 years,Ã¢â¬ Journal of the American Dental Association 140 (September 2009): 11. [ 25 ]. Alyssa Picard, Making the American Mouth: Dentists and Public Health in the Twentieth Century (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2009), 8 [ 26 ]. Bruce L. Pihlstrom and Michael Glick, Ã¢â¬Å"A century of progress: The Journal of the American Dentistry Association celebrate its centennial. Ã¢â¬ Journal of the American Dental Association 144 (January 2013): 14.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
History and Background on the Yakuza in Japan They are famous figures in Japanese movies and comic books - the yakuza, sinister gangsters with elaborate tattoos and severed little fingers. What is the historical reality behind the manga icon, though? Early Roots The yakuza originated during the Tokugawa Shogunate (1603 - 1868) with two separate groups of outcasts. The first of those groups were the tekiya, wandering peddlers who traveled from village to village, selling low-quality goods at festivals and markets. Many tekiya belonged to the burakumin social class, a group of outcasts or non-humans, which was actually below the four-tiered Japanese feudal social structure.Ã In the early 1700s, the tekiya began to organize themselves into tight-knit groups under the leadership of bosses and underbosses. Reinforced by fugitives from the higher classes, the tekiya started to participate in typical organized crime activities such as turf wars and protection rackets. In a tradition that continues to this day, tekiya often served as security during Shinto festivals, and also allocated stalls in the associated fairs in return for protection money. Between 1735 and 1749, the shoguns government sought to calm gang wars between different groups of tekiya and reduce the amount of fraud they practiced by appointing oyabun, or officially sanctioned bosses. The oyabun was allowed to use a surname and to carry a sword, an honor previously allowed only to samurai. Oyabun literally means foster parent, signifying the bosses positions as the heads of their tekiya families. The second group that gave rise to the yakuza was the bakuto, or gamblers. Gambling was strictly forbidden during Tokugawa times and remains illegal in Japan to this day. The bakuto took to the highways, fleecing unsuspecting marks with dice games or with hanafuda card games. They often sported colorful tattoos all over their bodies, which led to the custom of full-body tattooing for modern-day yakuza. From their core business as gamblers, the bakuto branched out naturally into loan sharking and other illegal activities. Even today, specific yakuza gangs may identify themselves as tekiya or bakuto, depending on how they make the majority of their money. They also retain rituals used by the earlier groups as part of their initiation ceremonies. Modern Yakuza Since the end of World War II, yakuza gangs have rebounded in popularity after a lull during the war. The Japanese government estimated in 2007 that there were more than 102,000 yakuza members working in Japan and abroad, in 2,500 different families.Ã Despite the official end of discrimination against burakumin in 1861, more than 150 years later, many gang members are descendants of that outcast class. Others are ethnic Koreans, who also face considerable discrimination in Japanese society. Traces of the gangs origins can be seen in the signature aspects of yakuza culture today. For example, many yakuza sport full-body tattoos which are made with traditional bamboo or steel needles, rather than modern tattooing guns. The tattooed area may even include the genitals, an incredibly painful tradition. The yakuza members usually remove their shirts while playing cards with each other and display their body art, a nod to the bakuto traditions, although they generally cover up with long sleeves in public. Another feature of yakuza culture is the tradition of yubitsume or severing the joint of the little finger.Ã Yubitsume is performed as an apology when a yakuza member defies or otherwise displeases his boss.Ã The guilty party cuts off the top joint of his left pinkie finger and presents it to the boss; additional transgressions lead to the loss of additional finger joints.Ã This custom originated in Tokugawa times; the loss of finger joints makes the gangsters sword grip weaker, theoretically leading him to depend more on the rest of the group for protection. Today, many yakuza members wear prosthetic fingertips to avoid being conspicuous. The largest yakuza syndicates operating today are the Kobe-based Yamaguchi-gumi, which includes about half of all active yakuza in Japan; the Sumiyoshi-kai, which originated in Osaka and boasts about 20,000 members; and the Inagawa-kai, out of Tokyo and Yokohama, with 15,000 members. The gangs engage in criminal activities such as international drug-smuggling, human trafficking, and arms smuggling. However, they also hold significant amounts of stock in large, legitimate corporations, and some have close ties with the Japanese business world, the banking sector, and the real estate market. Yakuza and Society Interestingly, after the devastating Kobe earthquake of January 17, 1995, it was the Yamaguchi-gumi who first came to the aid of victims in the gangs home city. Likewise, after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, different yakuza groups sent truck-loads of supplies to the affected area. Another counter-intuitive benefit from the yakuza is the suppression of petty criminals. Kobe and Osaka, with their powerful yakuza syndicates, are among the safest towns in a generally safe nation because small-fry crooks do not trespass on yakuza territory. Despite these surprising social benefits of the yakuza, the Japanese government has cracked down on the gangs in recent decades. In March of 1995, it passed tough new anti-racketeering legislation called the Act for Prevention of Unlawful Activities by Criminal Gang Members. In 2008, the Osaka Securities Exchange purged all of its listed companies that had ties to the yakuza. Since 2009, police across the country have been arresting yakuza bosses and shutting down businesses that cooperate with the gangs. Although the police are making serious efforts to suppress yakuza activity in Japan these days, it seems unlikely that the syndicates will disappear entirely. They have survived for more than 300 years, after all, and they are closely entwined with many aspects of Japanese society and culture.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Eom - Essay Example A very skilled financial advisor having significant success in advising high net worth individuals and corporate clients on investments. Over 6 years understanding in providing financial services and supporting clients in making well-versed decisions by showing them a range of options and helping them to assess the merits of diverse plans. Possessing in depth understanding of mortgages, loans, and venture strategies and efficient hard to customer-driven and sales-focused service. Having exceptional skills, able to work in a embattled situation, as an individual and also part of a team, and experienced at working to strict compliance requirements. Currently seeking a financial advisor position. Modules studied include: Economy; Marketing; Accounting; Organizational Behaviour; International business culture; Management Data Analysis; Consumer behaviour; Supply Chain and Operation Management; Entrepreneurship in a Global context. My position as a student studying higher national diploma in business management makes this an important issue for meÃ .I realized that most people and financial institutions used a certain form of investment that was of no value to the intuitions and clients. To them, this value was determined solely by whether something could be invested in other ways, whether something was marketable or not.Ã In contrast, the inventors seemed quite shy and hesitant to use anything more than technical language, approximately as if this was the only proof essential Ã¢â¬â as if no further clarification was needed This variation enforced me to replicate on the aims of this course how communication skills are not standard, but be different according to time and place. Like in the Ã¢â¬ËResearch MethodologyÃ¢â¬â¢ model discussed in the initial lecture, these testimonial skills are the consequence of a form of